Protection Measures on Wind Turbines against Lightning Strikes

 

S. Pastromas and E. Pyrgioti

 

2017/04/25

Abstrac

The major renewable energy sources can be considered wind, solar, hydro, biomass, geothermal and tidal. The adaptation of more renewables in European Union (EU) lowers the dependence on fossil fuels while energy production is getting more sustainable. Wind energy is the significant contributor on achieving the committed EU 2020 goals while the penetration of wind power plants follows an increasing trend in annual basis. Wind turbines of power plants are usually installed on high altitude areas where wind conditions have been proved that wind is sufficient for such projects. The installation altitude usually exceeds 1000m causing these structures vulnerable to lightning strikes. The lightning activity of an area has to be considered once a wind power plant is going to be installed. Additionally a wind turbine has to be designed and manufactured according to relevant IEC standards and special attention has to be given to the components which are most vulnerable like the blades and the nacelle. In the current paper will be discussed the effect and the potential disturbances that a lightning strike can cause to a wind turbine and also basic protection measures will be presented which allow the wind turbine to be effectively protected against lightning strikes.

Published in: Renewable Energy & Power Quality Journal (RE&PQJ, Nº. 15)
Pages: 388-393 Date of Publication: 2017/04/25
ISSN: 2172-038X Date of Current Version:
REF: 329-17 Issue Date: April 2017
DOI:10.24084/repqj15.329 Publisher: EA4EPQ

Authors and affiliations

S. Pastromas and E. Pyrgioti
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering. High Voltage Laboratory, University of Patras. (Greece)

Key word

Blade, grounding, lightning, LPZ, receptors, tip conductive area.

References

[1] Hellinic National Meteorological Service of Greece, "Isoceraunic map of Greece", Athens-France.
[2] IEC 62305-4 Ed. 1.0: Protection against lightning – Part 4: Electrical and electronic systems within structures.
[3] IEC/TR 61400-24:2010 Ed.1.0. Wind turbines - Part24: Lightning protection.
[4] International Civil Aviation Organization, “Aeronautical information services”, Annex 15, July 2004.
[5] François Grange, Sébastien Journet, Rouzbeh Moini, Farid Paul Dawalibi, “Safety of Wind Farm Grounding Systems under Fault , ICLP2016, Estoril, Portugal, 2016.
[6] IEC 62305-1 Ed. 1.0: Protection against lightning – Part 1: General principles.
[7] IEC 62305-3 Ed. 1.0: Protection against lightning – Part 3: Physical damage to structures and life hazard.
[8] A. Wada et.al., 2004, “An Experimental Study on Discharge Characteristics of Non-metallic Materials - Fundamental Discharge Characteristics of Model Wind Turbine Blades”, CRIEPI Report T03026 (in Japanese).
[9] Greek Standardization Organization (ELOT) Standard 1197/2002: Protection of structures against lightnings – General principles.
[10] Sokratis Pastromas, Ioannis Naxakis, Eleftheria Pyrgioti, “Typical Lightning Protection System for Wind turbines”, DEMSEE'16 11th International Conference on Deregulated Electricity Market Issues in South Eastern Europe, 22-23 September 2016, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
[11] Sokratis Pastromas, Charalambos Nikolakopoulos, Georgios Peppas, Ioannis Naxakis, Eleftheria Pyrgioti, “Effect on GPR of earthing connection between wind turbines”, REDEC 2014, 2nd International Conference on Renewable Energy for Developing Countries, November 26-27, 2014, Jnah, Beirut, Lebanon.
[12] S.Pastromas, E. Pyrgioti, "Two types of earthing system of Lightning Protection for Wind Turbines”, ICLP2008, pp. 192, Uppsala, Sweden, 2008.
[13] Maria Vomvila, “Transient performance of wind turbine grounding system”, Diploma thesis, High Voltage laboratory, University of Patras, Patras, October, 2006.
[14] T.Burton et al., Wind Energy Handbook, Wiley, 2001.
[15] W. Shepherd, D.W. Shepherd, Energy Studies, Imperial College, England.
[16] S.Pastromas, E. Pyrgioti, "An Application of an Integrated Lightning Protection System for Windmills" ICLP2008, pp. 196, Uppsala, Sweden, 2008.
[17] T. Shindo et al, "A Study of Lightning Striking Characteristics to Wind Turbines," ICLP2008, pp. 315-320, Uppsala, Sweden, 2008.
[18] D. Agoris et al., “Analysis of lightning incidents on wind turbines in Greece”, ICLP2006, Cracow, Polland, 2002.
[19] J. Montanya et al., “Protection of large wind turbine blades against lighnting”, ICLP2008, pp. 191, Uppsala, Sweden, 2008.