Development of small-scale wind energy systems adaptable to climatic conditions
using chattering torque control - PI pitch control and CAES strategy


N. Luo, T. Pujol, L. Pacheco, J.R. González, J.V. Bramon, A. Massaguer



Small wind turbines are commonly single-turbine installations owned by individual homeowners or farmers for on-site electricity consumption, and are becoming an attractive alternative for off-grid electrification and water pumping, both as stand-alone applications and in combination with other energy technologies such as photovoltaic, small hydro or diesel engines. The cost of energy alone is not the only criterion to consider, other aspects like system performance, suitability for a given
wind regime, reliability under normal and extreme wind conditions, efficiency in energy storage and exploitation, and overall system life are often equally important. This research deals with the development of small-scale wind energy systems for increasing the productivity of wind power and achieving the better exploitation of generated energy. The proposed wind turbine controller is based on the variable-speed variable-pitch power regulation strategy, using the combination of chattering torque control and PI pitch control. The hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation and on-site experimental testing in rural area are presented. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) strategy
for the energy exploitation is also discussed.

Published in: Renewable Energy & Power Quality Journal (RE&PQJ, Nº. 15)
Pages: 494-499 Date of Publication: 2017/04/25
ISSN: 2172-038X Date of Current Version:
REF: 369-17 Issue Date: April 2017
DOI:10.24084/repqj15.369 Publisher: EA4EPQ

Authors and affiliations

N. Luo(1), T. Pujol(1), L. Pacheco(1), J.R. González(1), J.V. Bramon(2), A. Massaguer(1)
1. Polytechnic School, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain)
2. Structural Integrity and Composites, Aerospace Engineering, TU Delft, Netherland.

Key word

Wind energy, small wind turbine, variable-speed variablepitch power regulation, compressed air energy storage,
hardware-in-the-loop simulation.


[1] IRENA - International Renewable Energy Agency (2015), Small Wind Turbines: Quality Infrastructure for Renewable Energy Technologies, Technical Report.
[2] WWEA - World Wind Energy Association (2014), Small Wind World Report.
[3] Renewable UK (2014), Small and Medium Wind Strategy, Technical Report.
[4] A. Berta.ien., B. Azzopardi, Synergies of wind turbine control techniques, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Reviews, 45 (2015) 336-342.
[5] O. Probst, J. Martinez, J. Elizondo, O. Monroy, Small wind turbine technology, Wind turbines, In Tech. 2011.
[6] A. Chehouri, R. Younes, A. Ilinca, J. Perron, Review of performance optimization techniques applied to wind turbines, Applied Energy, 142 (2015) 361-388.
[7] R. Lanzame, M. Messina, Power curve control in micro wind turbine design, Energy, 35(2010) 556-561.
[8] H. Gitano-Briggs, Small wind turbine power controllers, Wind Power, In Tech, 2010.
[9] D. Rivkin, L. Anderson, L. Silk, Wind Turbine Control Systems, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2012.
[10] N. Luo, Y. Vidal, L. Acho, Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring, Springer, 2014.
[11] A. Kusiak, W. Li, Z Song, Dynamic control of wind turbines, Renewable Energy, 35 (2010) 456-463.
[12] F Pozo, Y Vidal, L. Acho, N. Luo, M. Zapateiro, Power regulation of wind turbines using torque and pitch control.
American Control Conference, 2013.
[13] L. Acho, Y. Vidal, M. Zapateiro, F. Pozo, N. Luo, Chattering control design on a variable-speed horizontalaxis
wind turbine, IEEE-IAS SAICA, 2011.
[14] Y. Vidal, L. Acho, N. Luo, M. Zapateiro, F. Pozo, Power control design for variable-speed wind turbines, Energies,
5 (2012) 3033-3050.
[15] H. Hanselmann, Hardware-in-the-loop simulation testing and its integration into a CACSD toolset, Computer-aided
control system design, 1996.
[16] D. Macla, Simulation gets into the loop. IEEE Rev., 43 (1997) 109.112.
[17] Y. Vidal, L. Acho, N. Luo, C. Tutiven, Hardware in the loop wind turbine simulator for control system testing,
Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring, Springer, 2014.
[18] J. Jonkman, NWTC computer-aided engineering tools (FAST), url:, 2013.
[19] Arduino (2014), url:
[20] H. Ibrahim, A. Ilinca, J. Perron, Energy storage systems: characteristics and comparisons, Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12 (2008) 1221-1250.
[21] H. Zhao, et al., Review of energy storage system for wind power integration support, Applied Energy, 137 (2015)
[22] F. Diaz, A. Sumper, O. Gomis, R. Villafafila, A review of energy storage technologies for wind power applications,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16 (2012) 21542171.
[23] H. Lund, G. Salge, The role of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in future sustainable energy systems,
Energy Convers. Manag. 50 (2009) 1172.1179.