Efficient Utilization of Offshore Wind Energy Generation and Transmission during Normal Speed and Wind Gust through Pitch Control and HVDC Lines


M.A. Mahfouz, Mohamed A. El-Sayed



The range of offshore wind speed variation is higher than onshore with high frequent of wind gusts. This paper propose an efficient utilization system for offshore wind energy generation and transmission to the power grid. Pitch controlled wind turbines are modelled and pitch controller is developed to track the available wind power and to keep the generated power at its maximum even during wind gust incidence. Secondly, for transmission of the generated wind power to the grid, voltage-source converter (VSC) stations with High voltage direct current (HVDC) technology is used to minimize the transmission losses. The results shows that the proposed pitch controller is stable and capable to capture the maximum wind power. Also the proposed scheme ((VSC-HVDC-VSC) succeeds to export the active power generated in offshore wind farm to the grid using four quadrants PWM-VSC converter by controlling the DC voltage.

Published in: Renewable Energy & Power Quality Journal (RE&PQJ, Nº. 15)
Pages: 500-505 Date of Publication: 2017/04/25
ISSN: 2172-038X Date of Current Version:

REF: 370-17

Issue Date: April 2017
DOI:10.24084/repqj15.370 Publisher: EA4EPQ

Authors and affiliations

M.A. Mahfouz(1), Mohamed A. El-Sayed(2)
1. Department of Electrical Power and Machines, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt
2. Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait University

Key word

Wind energy, offshore wind farms, Pitch control, HVDC transmission, VSC


[1] European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), "Pure power - wind energy targets for 2020 and 2030," Tech. rep., EWEA, 2009.
[2] Meier S., "Novel Voltage Source Converter based HVDC Transmission System for Off-shore Wind Farms". PhD thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering Electrical Machines and Power Electronics, Sweden, 2005.
[3] European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), "Oceans of opportunity - harnessing Europe's largest domestic energy resource Off shore,"Tech. .Rep, 2009.
[4] Farhan Beg, "A Novel Fuzzy Logic Based PI Control Strategy for VSC- HVDC Transmission", International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) vol. 3 Issue 7, July 2014.
[5] Abdulhamed H., Reza K. ,"Wind Turbine Control Using PI Pitch Angle Controller", IFAC Conference on Advances in PID Control, Brescia (Italy, 2012.
[6] Antonio DJ, Enrique A , and Antonio GE,"Voltage Source Converter Modeling for Power System State Estimation:STATCOM and VSC-HVDC", IEEE transactions on power systems", Vol. 23, No. 4, pp 1552 - 1559, 2008.
[7] Oriol GB, Jun L, Ekanayake J and etal. "Topologies of multiterminal HVDC-VSC transmission for large offshore wind farms, Electric Power system Research", vol. 81, pp.271-281, 2011.
[8] Sumper A., Bellmunt O. , Anddreu A., Robles R., Duran J., "Response of fixed speed wind turbines to system frequency disturbance", IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, vol. 24, pp. 181-192, Feb. 2009.
[9] Kanellos FD, Hatziargyriou ND., "The Effect Of Variable Speed Wind Turbines On The Operation Of Weak Distribution Networks", IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 17, pp.543-548, Dec. 2002
[10] Boukhezzara, B., Lupua, L.; Siguerdidjanea, H., and Hand, M., "Multivariable control strategy for variable speed, variable pitch wind turbines", Renewable Energy, vol.32, pp.1273-1287, 2007.
[11] Feng, Gao., Daping, Xu., and Yuegang, L., "Pitchcontrol for Large-scale Wind Turbine Based on Feed forward Fuzzy PI",WCOICA, 25-27,China, 2008..
[12] Safdarian F, Ardehali M.M., Gharehpetian GB., "Performance of Optimal Controller of VSC-HVDC Systems in Weak Networks", Proceedings of the 2014 IAJC-ISAM International Conference, 2014.
[13] Xu L., Yao L., and Bazargan, M.,"DC Grid Management of a Multi-terminal HVDC Transmission System for Large Off-shore Wind Farms", Sustainable Power Generation and Supply, pp. 1-7, China, 2009.
[14] Flourentzou N., Agelidis, VG and. Demetriades GD," Vsc-based hvdc power transmission systems: An overview," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 24, pp. 592-602, 2009.
[15] Du C.,.Bollen MH.J, Agneholm E., and Sannino A.," A new control strategy of a vsc-hvdc system for high-quality supply of industrial plants," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 22, pp. 2386- 2394, 2007.