The Impact of the Air-Conditioning Systems on the Urban Microclimate
of Beirut City

Z. Ghaddar, K. Ghali and N. Ghaddar

 

2017/04/25

Abstract

The urban heat island consists of the increase in the ambient temperature in urban areas with respect to their rural surroundings, due to artificial modifications of the natural land cover. As a result, significant increase in the demand on cooling loads occurs in cities during summer, inducing more energy consumption in buildings. Furthermore, air-conditioning systems release anthropogenic waste heat to outdoor intensifying the urban heat island. Therefore, an interactive relation exists between the heat islands formation and the cooling systems as well as mutual impacts. Hence, the contribution of the air-conditioning systems to the urban heat island is
assessed through an appropriate numerical simulation for Beirut city. It is found that the intensive use of air conditioning systems in Beirut during summer could rise the street air temperature of about 0.8°C in the daytime and up to 4.7°C in the nighttime.

Published in: Renewable Energy & Power Quality Journal (RE&PQJ, Nº. 15)
Pages: 882-885 Date of Publication: 2017/04/25
ISSN: 2172-038X Date of Current Version:

REF: 504-17

Issue Date: April 2017
DOI:10.24084/repqj15.504 Publisher: EA4EPQ

Authors and affiliations

Z. Ghaddar, K. Ghali and N. Ghaddar
Department of Mechanical Engineering. FEA, American University of Beirut, Lebanon

Key word

Urban Heat Island, Air-Conditioning, Urban Microclimate, Energy Consumption and Anthropogenic, Waste Heat.

References

[1] H. E. Landsberg, “The Urban Climate”, Academic Press, New York, 1981.
[2] M. Santamouris, N. Papanikolaou, I. Licada, I. Koronakis, C. Georgakis, A. Argiriou, et al., “On the impact of urban climate on the energy consumption of buildings”, Solar Energy 70(3), 2001, 201–216.
[3] B. Tremeac, P. Bousquet, C. De Munck, G. Pigeon, V. Masson, C. Marchadier, M. Merchat, P. Poeuf, F. Meunier, “Influence of air-conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures”, Applied Energy 95, 2012, 102-110.
[4] Y. Kikegawa, Y. Genchi, H. Yoshikado, H. Kondo, “Development of a numerical system toward comprehensive
assessment of urban warming countermeasures including their impacts upon the urban buildings’ energy-demands”, Applied Energy 76, 2003, 449-466.
[5] P. A. Mirzaei, F. Haghighat, “Approaches to study Urban Heat Island Abilities and limitations”, Building and
Environment 45, 2010, 2192-2201.
[6] T. R. Oke, Boundary Layer Climates, Second Edition, Routledge, 1987.
[7] J. P. Lafore, J. Stein, N. Asencio, P. Bougeault, V. Ducrocq, J. Duron, C. Fischer, P. Hereil, P. Mascart, V. Masson, J. P. Pinty, J. L. Redelsperger, E. Richard, JV-G. de Arellano, “The MESO-NH atmospheric simulation system. Part I: adiabatic formulation and control simulations”, Annales Geophysicae 16, 1998, 90–109.
[8] V. Masson, “A physically-based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models”, Boundary-Layer Meteorology 94, 2000, 357–397.
[9] B. Bueno, G. Pigeon, L. Norford, K. Zibouche, C. Marchadier, “Development and evaluation of a building energy model integrated in the TEB scheme”, Geoscience Model Development 5, 2012, 433–448.
[10] J. Noilhan, J. F. Mahfouf, “The ISBA land surface parameterization scheme”, Global and Planetary Change 13,
1996, 145–159.
[11] P. Le Moigne, A. Boone, S. Belamari, E. Brun, J. C. Calvet, B. Decharme, S. Faroux, A. L. Gibelin, H. Giordani, S.
Lafont, C. Lebeaupin, J. F. Mahfouf, E. Martin, V. Masson, D. Mironov, S. Morin, J. Noilhan, P. Tulet, B. Van Den Hurk,
V. Vionnet, “Surfex Scientific Documentation”, version 7.2, Issue 2, 2012, 118.
[12] V. Masson, C. S. B. Grimmond, T. R. Oke, “Evaluation of the Town Energy Balance (TEB) scheme with direct
measurements from dry districts in two cities”, Journal of Applied Meteorology 41, 2002, 1011–1026.
[13] V. Masson, J. L. Champeaux, F. Chauvin, C. Meriguet, G. Pigeon, “Ecoclimap: a global database of land surface
parameters at 1-km resolution in meteorological and climate models”, Journal of climate 16(9), 2003, 1261–1282.