Operation Constraints and Methodology for Stability Preservation in Power Systems with High Penetration of Non-Synchronous Generation

I. Taczi, I. Vokony

 

2018/04/20

Abstract

Nowadays, significant changes in the electricity generation mix raise questions about the secure operation of power systems. Most of the newly installed generation capacity is being connected to the grid via power electronic converters, thus can be seen as a non-synchronous generation. The theory of power system operation and control relies heavily on the characteristics of synchronous machines and conventional network structure. Therefore, the effective integration process of the new technologies must include the composition of new physical models for converter dominated large power systems as well as innovative solutions to ensure the secure operation in the future. The focus of this paper is a holistic analysis of the reducing power system inertia to frame up new constraints for system operators through simulation studies on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers standard 118 bus test system. The different system states and scenarios offer a comparison opportunity between stability preservation possibilities. Minimum inertia constraint calculation methodologies and various objective functions are being discussed. The utilization and effects of synthetic inertia from non-synchronous generators and energy storage systems is also considered to quantify the exact effects.

Published in: Renewable Energy & Power Quality Journal (RE&PQJ, Nº. 16)
Pages: 538-543 Date of Publication: 2018/04/20
ISSN: 2172-038X Date of Current Version:2018/03/23
REF: 380-18 Issue Date: April 2018
DOI:10.24084/repqj16.380 Publisher: EA4EPQ

Authors and affiliations

I. Taczi1, I. Vokony1
1 Department of Electric Power Engineering. Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Hungary)

Key words

Power System Stability, Power System Inertia, Synthetic Inertia, Renewable Energy Sources, Non-Synchronous Generation

References

[1] International Energy Agency, Renewables 2017: Analysis and forecasts to 2022, 2017.
[2] Mohammad Dreidy, H. Mokhlis, Saad Mekhilef, "Inertia response and frequency control techniques for renewable energy sources - a review", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Volume 69, pp. 144-155, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.170
[3] Pieter Tielens, Dirk Van Hertem, "The relevance of inertia in power systems", Renewable and Sustainable Energy ReviewsVolume 55,Pages 999-1009, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.11.016
[4] Dimitros Zografos, Mehrdad Ghandhari, "Estimation of Power System Inertia", Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2016. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7741073/
[5] European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E): The Impact of Dispersed Generation on Continental Europe's Security of Supply, 2014. https://www.entsoe.eu/Documents/Publications/SOC/Continental_Europe/141113_

Dispersed_Generation_Impact_on_Continental_Europe_Region_Security.pdf
[6] European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E): Requirements for Generators, 2016. https://electricity.network-codes.eu/network_codes/rfg/
[7] European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E): Future System Inertia (Nordic Report), 2015. https://www.entsoe.eu/Documents/Publications/SOC/Nordic/Nordic_report_Future_System_Inertia.pdf
[8] European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E): Frequency Stability Evaluation Criteria for the Synchronous Zone of Continental Europe - Requirements and impacting factors, 2016. https://www.entsoe.eu/Documents/SOC%20documents/RGCE_SPD_frequency_stability_criteria_v10.pdf
[9] Pádraig Dally, Damian Flynn (Electricity Research Centre, University College Dublin, Ireland), Noel Cunniffe (EirGrid Plc, Dublin, Ireland), "Inertia Considerations within Unit Commitment and Economic Dispatch for Systems with High Non-Synchronous Penetrations", Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers PowerTech Conference, Eindhoven, 2015. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7232567/
[10] Ivonne Pena, Carlo Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Bri-Mathias Hodge, "An Extended IEEE 118-Bus Test System with High Renewable Penetration", Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on Power Systems Volume: PP, Issue: 99, 2017. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7904729/
[11] IEEE/CIGRE Joint Task Force on Stability, "Terms and Definitions: Definition and Classification of Power System Stability", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems Volume 19 Issue 3 pp. 1387-1401., 2004. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2004.825981
[12] Peter Wall, Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt, Vladimir Terzija, "Estimation of generator inertia available during a disturbance", IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, San Diego, USA 2012. https://doi.org/10.1109/PESGM.2012.6344755
[13] Xue Cao, Bruce Stephen, Ibrahim F. Abdulhadi, Campbell D. Boot, Graeme M. Burt, "Switching Markov Gaussian Models for Dynamic Power System Inertia Estimation", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Volume 31. Issue 5. pp. 3394-3403., 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2015.2501458
[14] P.M. Ashton, G.A. Taylor, A.M Carter, M.E. Bradley, W. Hung, "Application of phasor measurement units to estimate power system inertial frequency response, IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/PESMG.2013.6672671
[15] Trent Ratzlaff: Effects Future Renewable Installations will have on System Synchronous and Synthetic Inertia (master thesis), Technical University of Delft, Netherlands, 2012., https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid:1c94be1d-3619-40a1-86fa-4a93941cce50
[16] Johan Björnstedt: Integration of Non-Synchronous Generation (doctoral dissertation), Lund University, Sweden, 2012., http://www.iea.lth.se/publications/Theses/LTH-IEA-1064.pdf
[17] Istvan Taczi, Istvan Vokony: "Composition of Inertial Response Emulation Mechanisms for Power System Frequency Stability Analysis", International Youth Conference on Energy, Budapest, Hungary, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/IYCE.2017.8003733
[18] Zhiheng Zhang, Yi Wang, Heming Li, Xiaoqing Su, "Comparison of inertia control methods for DFIG-based wind turbines", IEEE ECCE Asia, Melbourne, Australia, 2013., https://doi.org/10.1109/ECCE-Asia.2013.6579222
[19] Sudipta Ghosh, Sukumar Kamalasadan, Nilanjan Senroy, Johan Enslin: Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)-Based Wind Farm Control Framework for Primary Frequency and Inertial Response Application, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems Volume 3 Issue 3, 2016., https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2015.2438861
[20] M. Marinelli, S. Massucco. Mansoldo, M. Norton: Analysis of Inertial Response and Primary Power-Frequency Control Provision by Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbines in a Small Power System, Proceedings of the 17th Power Systems Computation Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, 2011. http://orbit.dtu.dk/files/10729956/
[21] H.R. Chamorro, M. Ghandhari, R. Eriksson: Wind Power Impact on Power System Frequency Response (North American Power Symposium), 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/NAPS.2013.6666880
[22] F. Gonzalez Longatt: Activation schemes of synthetic inertia controller on full converter wind turbine (type 4). IEEE Power &Energy Society General Meeting, Denver, USA, 2015. https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/bitstream/2134/17687
1/PAPER%20Activation%20Schemes%20IEEE%20GM%202015.pdf
[23] Adam Stock, Bill Leithead, Shona Pennock: Providing frequency droop control using variable speed wind turbines with augmented control, EWEA Annual Conference, 2014. https://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/57188/1/Stock_etal_EWEA2014_Providing_frequency_droop_control.pdf
[24] F. Gonzalez-Longatt, E. Chikuni, E. Rashayi: Effects of the Synthetic Inertia from Wind Power on the Total System Inertia after a Frequency Disturbance, IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, Cape Town, South Africa, 2013., https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIT.2013.6505779
[25] G. C. Tarnowski: Coordinated Frequency Control of Wind Turbines with High Wind Penetration (doctoral dissertation), 2012. http://orbit.dtu.dk/files/75259610/gctarnowski_thesis1.pdf
[26] F. Gonzalez- Longatt, S. M. Alhejaj, "Enabling inertial response in utility-scale battery energy storage system", IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT-Asia), pp. 605 - 610., 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISGT-Asia.2016.7796453
[27] Jingya Huang, Robin Preece: HVDC Based Fast Frequency Support for Low Inertia Power Systems, 13th IET International Conference on AC and DC Power Transmission, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2017., https://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2017.0040